There are several services that are concerned with helping a child to develop into a fully functioning individual. These services taken together constitute a guidance programme. Technically, these services are called Orientation, Pupil Inventory, Information, Counselling, Placement, Follow-up and Evaluation Services. Each of these services has a specific function concerning human growth and development.
Many a times non-familiarity of a new situation like in the case of a child, coming from home to school for the first time or from another school having different set of rules and regulations, etc., may lead to adjustment problems. The orientation service in a school aims at familiarising children to its history, tradition, purposes, rules, regulations, curricular and extra-curricular activities and also assisting the individuals to adjust to a new situation.
The orientation programme helps children to bridge the gap from home to school. The purpose of this service is to make children feel at ease in a new school environment.
Pupil Inventory Service
One of the aims of guidance is to help a child to understand him/herself. For this, there is a need to collect information about individuals by various methods and techniques. The information is to be recorded and maintained.
Cumulative records, student information blank, anecdotal record, rating scale and self-appraisal devices like autobiography do help in understanding the children better.
The purpose of the information service is to help a child to understand and evaluate contingent aspects of his/her environment.
The information service helps children to understand options open for education, training and occupation. At the elementary school level, this service aims at developing general awareness about various occupations available in the community and also in brief about the nature of work carried out by each. An attempt is also made to develop work habits and dignity of labour.
The concern of the counselling service is with the development of the person. The counselling service in elementary school is to help each individual achieve optimum growth and development as a person capable of self-direction, self-understanding and self-actualisation and also formation of appropriate attitudes and values.
The counselling service includes group counselling which helps children to learn to interact effectively within the group. Through group counselling, children learn to work within a peer group and explore their own problems, feelings, attitudes and values.
This service extends help to children to take up further education or training, after elementary schooling or a job or a different course of study.
Here, the assistance is provided to each individual even after she/he leaves the school. Through this service continuity is maintained with the individual by continuously providing assistance for self-understanding, for better growth and development. The service also helps guidance workers to know and understand the influence of guidance programme on children.
Evaluation is a service that enables the teacher, the guidance worker and the whole school staff to assess the outcome of the school guidance programme. It is through the evaluation service that accountability is established. This service helps in monitoring the performance of activities of a guidance programme to achieve its goals.